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GSE dean debates online speech

first_imgShould schools punish students for online speech? That question, posed by Harvard Graduate School of Education (GSE) Dean James Ryan as part of his J-Term seminar, opened the doors to many more. Calling the issue “remarkably difficult” in terms of law and policy, Ryan pushed students to think deeply about issues regarding online speech facing courts and school officials today.“As you know, social media is pervasive; students communicate all the time online,” Ryan said. “Sometimes students say incredibly nasty things — beyond nasty — they harass, they torture other students through online postings, leading to a new term in our vocabulary: not just bullying, but cyberbullying.”The dilemma for many school officials is whether to intervene. Whether they do or don’t, schools may face liability — and existing laws may offer them little guidance.“The law is really unclear. What you won’t get out of this session is a bright-line rule about when schools can intervene or when they have to intervene because unfortunately the law is not yet settled,” Ryan said during a two-hour discussion in which he urged students to move past what the law already says. “The court has not yet issued a definite ruling about the rights of students in this context. The nice thing is it gives us an opportunity to think about what that rule would look like.”The class delved into cases examining student activity online, ranging from threats of physical harm to images of sexual acts to inappropriate messages about teachers. Through the lens of landmark cases dealing with schools and student speech, such as Tinker v. Des Moines and Bethel v. Fraser, the seminar wrestled with whether and how any of their findings could apply in today’s wired world.In the end, the students were divided. While some thought a line could be drawn based on place and timing — whether or not an offensive post was made during school hours, and from a computer on campus — others struggled with whether it mattered where the online speech originated, especially if it had potential to harm the school, staff, or students. “It’s always foreseeable that online speech could end up on campus,” Ryan reminded the class. Similar questions arose regarding the content of online speech. How is harm determined? If educators become monitors of speech, does that violate students’ First Amendment rights?“You see the problem, right? Schools don’t know what the rules are — that’s a problem,” Ryan said. “If you act, you might get sued. But it’s a problem if you don’t act and harm occurs, because you might get sued. So, what school officials would like most of all is clarity, and right now there is no clarity because the court has not spoken about what the rules should be.”While states have begun to set their own rules, in particular about cyberbullying, Ryan noted there was still time for school boards and courts to weigh in. The issue of online speech isn’t one that is likely to go away until it is decided by a higher court, which Ryan anticipates within the next five years.last_img read more

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A flawed masterpiece

first_imgWhat they found reflects what Capellini suggests indicates “positive selection”: evidence that this new knee gave the fledgling bipeds an evolutionary advantage. The highest-functioning knees would have been selected, reducing variation in knee shape over time by decreasing the genetic variation in the switches that control the joint’s formation. What variation persisted likely didn’t substantially matter at that time.“Later, as human populations expand and drift, you start getting these genetic variants that slightly modify how the knee is shaped or how the knee is maintained,” explained Daniel Richard, a Ph.D. candidate in human evolutionary biology and lead author on the paper. “Those slight deviations, acting on this constrained knee, lead to risk for developing osteoarthritis.”Those traits did not affect the success of the bipedal knee because natural selection promotes traits that allow individuals to reach sexual maturity and successfully breed. In essence, because this new knee gave young adults an edge in passing on their genetic material, it continued despite these variants. Our eventual old age had little role in its selection.“We think that these slight modifications don’t so much impact early life,” said Richard. “But when you keep on walking up until you’re 50 or 60, over that longer time span a super small change in your knee compounds over decades. Eventually it contributes to osteoarthritis disease in the elderly.”As proof of principle, Capellini and colleagues performed two additional experiments. By studying knee switches in patients with osteoarthritis compared with the general population, they found that osteoarthritis patients have on average more genetic variants in switches than those who don’t have the disease. They also focused on a gene called GDF5 (Growth Differentiation Factor Five) that contributes to osteoarthritis risk in Europeans and Asians. Using CRISPR editing in mice and human cells, they pinpointed a genetic variant, present in billions of people, that affects the function of a key knee switch, changing knee shape and increasing osteoarthritis risk.The stiffness and soreness humans feel today may simply have piggybacked on an evolutionary advantage. In other words, osteoarthritis came along with the knee. And the pain may pay off in the study of human evolution, the researchers said. “The idea of tying new features with almost new diseases is a good mental framework to think of while studying these diseases of aging,” said Richard. “You can’t really have your cake and eat it too.” Research from Lieberman Lab goes deep to clarify prevalence of osteoarthritis The human knee is a triumph of design. The joint, which evolved fairly rapidly from our common ancestor with the chimpanzee to accommodate bipedalism, likely contributed to our success as a species. However, as the human lifespan extended, the flaw in the design emerged: pain, in the form of osteoarthritis.In a new paper published in Cell, “Evolutionary Selection and Constraint on Human Knee Chondrocyte Regulation Impacts Osteoarthritis Risk,” researchers exploring the genetic features that help make this sophisticated joint possible found that the regulatory switches involved in its development also play a role in this partially heritable disease, which afflicts at least 250 million people worldwide.Terence D. Capellini, Richard B. Wolf Associate Professor in the Department of Human Evolutionary Biology and the paper’s corresponding author, explained it in terms of a burden our knees literally endure.“From an evolutionary standpoint, the primate knee went from something that accommodated the forces of walking on four legs to placing all the weight on two legs,” he said. “Going from a quadruped to a biped changes the force distribution. All our weight is being transmitted through our hips and our knees down to our ankles. The cells in the joint and the shape of the joint had to change to accommodate those new forces.”With such a specific task — and limited by its origins in the older primate knee — the optimized bipedal knee developed what is known as a constrained morphology, that is, it did not allow much variation. “As you can imagine, when you’re designing a part for an airplane, you don’t want to stray too much,” Capellini said.To understand how this complex mechanism developed, researchers looked for evidence of accelerated natural selection: the series of mutations helped us walk upright.“We wanted to know whether or not we could see signs of ancient evolution — ancient selection — in the regions of the genome that specifically sculpt the knee,” said Capellini. To that end, they searched for traces of specific regulatory switches, pieces of DNA “responsible for turning on and off the genetic material that make the knee a human knee.” Related Quitting smoking may reduce risk of rheumatoid arthritis A better delivery system brings anti-inflammatory therapies to critical sites   Studies say stopping can delay or even prevent the most severe form of ailment Treating inflammatory arthritis with hydrogel Bad knees through the ageslast_img read more

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Professor discusses alternative perspective to dictatorships

first_imgProfessor Graeme Gill gave a lecture in the Hesburgh Center on Tuesday about famous dictators Joseph Stalin and Mao Zedong.Gill, who specializes in Soviet and Russian politics, used the two famous dictators to make an argument against common perception of how dictators rule. Authoritarian and dictatorial rule are usually characterized as arbitrary and uncontrolled with power bestowed on one person rather than an institution or collective governing body. Gill argued that dictatorships have far more rules and structure than previously thought, using examples the regimes of Mao and Stalin to support his argument.“Ever since Aristotle, people have been interested in trying to distinguish between political systems,” Gill said. At the beginning of his lecture, Gill set out the criteria he uses to analyze and understand the structure of a government or political system. Gill focused on two different categories of rules. The first category he termed “decision rules” and the second he called “comportment.” Decision rules are the rules of a political system which govern who, in the case of an executive, or what, in the case of a legislative or other collective government body, make decisions for the system as a whole. Comportment rules were defined as rules that had to do with how people — especially oligarchs and the close colleagues of the dictators being looked at — within a political system were expected to behave, they outline what things were acceptable or unacceptable to do such as criticize or even oppose the person in charge.  After defining these concepts, Gill applied them to Stalin and Mao’s regimes in order to gain insight into how they worked. In both the Soviet Union and the early People’s Republic of China, Stalin and Mao both became the undisputed executive leaders of their countries. Mao did so by virtue of his position as the chief leader of the communist revolution, and Stalin did so by outmaneuvering and eliminating political competition after Vladimir Lenin’s death to become head of the country’s Communist Party. Though Mao and Stalin were definitely their countries’ leaders, there also existed political institutions called the “Politburo,” which was ostensibly the chief policy-making committees for their respective countries.   “The key decision-making body in the system atrophy over time,” Gill said. In the Soviet Union, the Politburo was convened less and less as Stalin’s time in power went on. In the People’s Republic of China, Mao eventually replaced the Politburo with a Standing Committee made up of a few key policymakers. Gill argued that this atrophy of the official political decision-making institutions did not mean that the dictators were making all policy decisions, but rather that they also relied heavily on the oligarchy that surrounded the dictatorship. Both Stalin and Mao had neither the time, expertise or inclination to make every decision for their countries, Gill said. In order to effectively govern they consulted on issues and discussed policy plans regularly with colleges that made up the country’s elite. Gill went on to demonstrate that these members of the oligarchy around Stalin and Mao wielded significant autonomy over specific topics and policy. In Stalin’s case, especially later in his life, he spent a lot of time on vacation and though he had final say on all policy decisions, those decisions were being made by the circle of oligarchs Stalin was close to.“What’s quite clear is that they [governing oligarchs] knew they had autonomy but when they sought to things, they were always aware of the fact that Uncle Joe had the final say,” Gill said. With this degree of autonomy of the oligarchy, there also seemed to be a precedent for discussion or even criticism of policies that the dictators supported. Gill said the political elite were not explicitly prohibited from or guaranteed to be punished for disagreeing with their leader, provided the criticism was not perceived as an overstep or challenge to the dictator’s authority. “By and large, criticism of policy was fine provided it remained within certain guidelines and that it did not call Mao, or Mao’s position, into question,” Gill said.Gill ended his lecture by highlighting the fact that in the dictatorships of Mao and Stalin, while each wielded enormous power, there did seem to be a set of precedents or loose rules that structured the way the system worked. This perspective shows that dictatorships have a far more intricate structure than the common perception of them as a system where one strongman wield absolute power and makes all decisions. Tags: dictatorship, Graeme Gill, Joseph Stalin, Mao Zedonglast_img read more

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General Dynamics Vermont part of $11 million Navy contract for Aegis illuminators

first_imgGeneral Dynamics Ordnance and Tactical Systems,General Dynamics Armament and Technical Products was awarded an $11.2 million contract modification by the U.S. Navy for the continued production of MK82 directors and MK200 director controllers for Aegis Combat System illuminators. General Dynamics Armament and Technical Products is a business unit of General Dynamics (NYSE: GD).The MK 82 and MK 200 are critical components of the Aegis missile fire-control system’s illuminator. The Aegis Combat System is the most advanced tactical radar defense and fire-control system fielded by the Navy.This award modifies a contract issued in September 2010 by the Naval Sea Systems Command. That contract was valued at $11.5 million, with a total potential value of $29.5 million if all options are exercised. Under these contracts, the MK82 directors and MK200 director controllers will be installed aboard ships built under the restart of the DDG 51 shipbuilding program.”For more than 20 years of DDG 51-class production, General Dynamics Armament and Technical Products has produced and supported MK82 directors and the MK200 director controllers, so these critical components remain effective and affordable elements of the Aegis weapon system,” said Russ Klein, the company’s vice president and general manager of weapon systems.Program management, assembly and testing of directors and director controllers will be performed at General Dynamics’ facilities in Vermont, which have approximately 430 employees. The delivery of all illuminator components will be completed by July 2013.For more information about General Dynamics Armament and Technical Products, please visit www.gdatp.com(link is external). More information about General Dynamics is available online at www.generaldynamics.com(link is external).SOURCE General Dynamics Armament and Technical Products CHARLOTTE, N.C., March 9, 2011 /PRNewswire/last_img read more

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How To: Crested Butte, CO

first_imgThe coal-mining-town-turned-ski-hub that is Crested Butte is hands down one of our absolute favorite places on Earth for all of the reasons we love Colorado—alpine lakes, craggy peaks, stellar singletrack, backdoor access to BLM lands, and of course the skiing (though we personally didn’t get to experience this). We crossed over high mountain passes, dipped in snowmelt lakes and hot springs, and even saw two bull moose! We’ll definitely be back, but if you happen to beat us to it, this how we decided to #gooutsideandplay in CB.Hail Jacket Hail Jacket-169 Hail Jacket-157 Hail Jacket-176PlayGothic Road is like a gravel beltway of adventure. Pass through the old town of Gothic and park at the Copper Creek trailhead. Four-wheel drive cars will be able to access the Judd Falls trailhead just beyond Copper Creek’s parking area, but don’t sweat it if you can’t drive up there. It’s a short, half-mile climb up to the trail itself. From there it’s five miles of relatively flat walking (at least until the final mile) to Copper Lake, a stunning alpine lake that sits in a bowl of picturesque mountains.Hail Jacket-143 Hail Jacket-10 Hail Jacket-35 Hail Jacket-58We decided to base camp here for the next day’s out-and-back excursion to Conundrum Hot Springs. Start early to avoid the afternoon thunderstorms. It’s a pretty steady two-mile butt-buster up to Triangle Pass, but the views are amazing. The trail hugs the mountainside and is often loose scree, so be careful as you hike. Drop down over Triangle Pass and hike until you reach Conundrum Creek. The hot springs are extremely popular and can be accessed from Aspen, so don’t be surprised to see people here. We recommend heading there on a weekday to avoid the crowds. Go in the summertime when the wildflowers are in bloom—the valley is absolutely spectacular. Round trip mileage comes in around 24 miles, which makes for a great two- or three-day excursion.Hail Jacket-80_MG_3118 Hail Jacket-109 Hail Jacket-150 Hail Jacket-144StayCamping in the Maroon Bells-Snowmass Wilderness requires all visitors to have a bear canister, so be sure to bring one yourself or you can rent one from The Alpineer for $20. At certain times of the year there are free dispersed car camping sites along Gothic Road, as well as a pretty primitive campground (rates from $12 per night), so be sure to check local guidelines depending on the season.EatWe’re coffee fiends, so when we landed at First Ascent Coffee Roasters, we thought we’d died and gone to heaven. They make their own bread here (check out the bagel breakfast sandwiches) and offer WiFi as well as a quiet place to work upstairs. It’s the perfect place to post up when CB’s weather turns damp, which is practically every day sometime after 2pm._MG_3079_MG_4006 _MG_3213 _MG_2937Like what you see in this post? Check out the portable and easy-to-use LifeStraw Go Water Bottle, apparel and shoes from La Sportiva, the Damascus Elite hiker sock from Farm to Feet, the always comfortable Crazy Creek chair, and the most useful GPS made, the DeLorme InReach Explorer.last_img read more

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Alabama One CEO discusses state government conspiracy

first_imgby: Natasha ChilingerianA federal lawsuit filed Monday by the $602 million, Tuscaloosa, Ala.-based Alabama One Credit Union points to a complex web of conspiracy that’s being led by David Byrne, Alabama Gov. Robert Bentley’s chief legal advisor, with the intention of exploiting the credit union for monetary and political gain.That’s the belief held by John Dee Carruth, president/CEO for Alabama One, who spoke with CU Times by phone Tuesday. continue reading » 6SHARESShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblrlast_img read more

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Credit unions: I was wrong

first_img 74SHARESShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblr,Michael Ogden Michael has been in the social media business for more than a decade inside the credit union, technology, financial and food industries. He’s the founder of For3, LLC, which … Web: www.for3forgood.com Details For the past four years I’ve been writing about social media and credit unions. And in that time I’ve made predictions, given advice, reported back to you on digital and social media trends and research. Go ahead, look in the archives. While I’ve been right often and I’ve had the best intentions to help build a stronger social media empire for my beloved credit unions….I’ve just been stubborn and wrong.I really thought we could stick to our guns of creating original and insightful content which would result in organic and genuine growth on our social media channels. In looking at the data and the numbers and the research, it’s time to face the pay-to-play reality. Here’s why.Reports and data continue to come out showing the rapid and dramatic decline of audience reach with organic content, especially on Facebook and Twitter (which we’ve been watching for the past year). My friends at Social Bakers put out some great reports on this issue. They found this information in the past six months of studying Facebook business page posts:Video posts reach 9 out of every 100 fansText-only and link posts reach 6 out of every 100 fansPhoto posts reach 4 out of every 100 fansIf you’re an early-adopter of social media and Facebook especially, and you have thousands or tens-of-thousands of fans – you should be pretty pissed off. The same goes for Twitter where now roughly anywhere from 1-5% of your audience actually sees what you put out there.So, here we are at the mercy of my old social media friends who’ve grown up into just another business after my money. Fine, I’ll pay $100 per day for three weeks to reach 80,000 people who may or may not connect with my page. Fine, I’ll pay $1000 to boost one post so that maybe, just maybe another 5,000 people might see it and (crossing fingers) like my post.Or……I’ll just change my approach to social media altogether. I’m terribly stubborn and spiteful when it comes to handing money over to large corporations.I’ve been so mad about this for so long, that I started doing my own research. And combined with data I’ve found and talking with people who are just as mad, I think we have an early answer to solve this pay-to-play problem.The answer is your website. In some quick studies of a test I was running on a client’s social media platforms, I simplified the social media messaging to be extremely brand message-centric with links directing everything back to the client’s website (I mean everything). In a few weeks, we saw an overall traffic increase of 19% as well as an increase of sales directly attributed from traffic coming from the social media posts. A 19% jump in traffic and a jump (albeit small, but still a jump) in sales without spending one freakin’ dime on Facebook ads.It’s early in this new approach testing. But if I can crack this code (and yes, I’m spiteful enough to do it) to continue avoiding paying for social media engagement while increasing website traffic and sales, you’ll hear about it.I was wrong about sticking to using your “original content.” I was wrong to tell you to just “be who you are” instead of giving in to the pay-to-play reality of social media. But dammit, I’m just one guy trying to do my best for what I believe in. Please forgive me. And when I figure it all out, I’ll tell you how I did it.last_img read more

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Britain set to lose Euro row over RDA funding

first_imgTo access this article REGISTER NOWWould you like print copies, app and digital replica access too? SUBSCRIBE for as little as £5 per week. Would you like to read more?Register for free to finish this article.Sign up now for the following benefits:Four FREE articles of your choice per monthBreaking news, comment and analysis from industry experts as it happensChoose from our portfolio of email newsletterslast_img

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BP’s third-quarter slumps on lower prices, adverse weather

first_imgImage courtesy of BPUK-based energy giant and LNG player BP reported a profit of $2.3 billion for the second quarter of 2019, dropping from $3.8 billion a year earlier. The 41 percent drop was a result of significantly lower upstream earnings, resulting from lower prices, maintenance and weather impacts, BP said in its statement.The company said its underlying replacement cost profit, the company’s version of net profit, for the first nine months of the year reached $7.4 billion, slipping from $9.2 billion in the first nine months of 2018.Speaking of the results, BP’s CEO Bob Dudley said, “BP delivered strong operating cash flow and underlying earnings in a quarter that saw lower oil and gas prices and significant hurricane impacts.”Reported oil and gas production for the quarter averaged 3.7 million barrels of oil equivalent a day, compared to 3.6 million barrels of oil equivalent a day a year earlier.Upstream production, excluding Rosneft, was down 2.5 percent from a year earlier, reflecting maintenance across a number of regions and weather impacts in the US Gulf of Mexico.Looking ahead, BP expects the fourth quarter of 2019 reported production to be higher than the third quarter due to the completion of seasonal maintenance and turnaround activities.last_img read more

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Antigua media now ”under fire” for LIAT’s disaster reports

first_img Tweet NewsRegional Antigua media now ”under fire” for LIAT’s disaster reports by: – June 21, 2012 Share Share Sharing is caring!center_img 81 Views   no discussions Share Acting Chief Executive Officer Brian Challenger noted that LIAT remained available to the media through its Corporate Communications Department adding that the company would continue to provide information to the public once it becomes available.ST. JOHN’S, Antigua, Thursday June 21, 2012 – The management of LIAT has taken to task an Antiguan media house for its reporting on the recent fire that extensively destroyed LIAT property including one of its airplanes.In a media released this week, LIAT called on media personnel to be “responsible” in their reporting. It used the release as an “opportunity to respond” to a report that appeared in the June 19 edition of the Antigua Observer Newspaper and on its Observer Radio, which suggested that the cause for last week’s fire at the LIAT hangar was the result of a plugged in golf cart. Acting Chief Executive Officer Brian Challenger countered that investigations by local law enforcement officials were continuing and therefore the cause of the fire had not yet been determined. He charged that: “in that context it was extremely unfortunate for speculative reasons to be highlighted in this manner”, according to the release.Challenger noted that LIAT remained available to the media through its Corporate Communications Department adding that the company would continue to provide information to the public once it becomes available.According to reports in the Caribbean Journal, Antigua’s National Security Minister Dr Errol Cort has stated that Barbadian arson investigator Roderick Walcott is leading a two-person team in examining the recent blaze.“Given the nature of the fire, and, more particularly, given the magnitude of what transpired there, we recognize that we need some additional assistance to complement what the Royal Police Force of Antigua and Barbuda has been doing in terms of investigation,” Cort is reported to have said.The fire, which occurred at the LIAT hangar after 10 PM on June 10, destroyed one of the company’s Dash 8-300 aircraft, a maintenance hangar and two offices, to the tune of over EC$35 million, according to LIAT. This week, Dominica pledged EC$8 million to help the airline in its recovery efforts.Despite this setback, the airline has assured its customers and partners that LIAT continues to provide regular services throughout its network.LIAT is owned by regional shareholders, with major shareholders being the Governments of Barbados, Antigua & Barbuda and St. Vincent & the Grenadines.Caribbean 360 Newslast_img read more

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